Specific instructional aims
Students understand and are able to construct compound sentences by combining simple sentences or independent clauses with/without modifiers.
· compound sentence with modifiers
· compound sentence with modifier
· the use of conjunction
· the use of transitional or semicolon
· the use of transitional expression as interrupters or parenthetic elements
As you have learned previously, a sentence is a group of words that has a subject and a predicate (a verb) and expresses a complete idea. A sentence can be very brief (consisting only subject – predicate) or it can be longer (qualified by a qualifier or modifier). A combination of simple sentences (independent clauses) with or without modifiers is called a compound sentence. The independent clauses are connected by the coordinate conjunctions such as: and, but, or, nor, yet, for, so, etc. to form a compound sentence. Sometimes, a comma is used before the conjunction.
1. The production of horticultural products is getting better, and exports of agricultural products are increased.
2. We regularly apply the fertilizer, but the production is still low.
3. The demand for agricultural products is high lately, so we must increase our productivity.
4. Neither rambutan nor durian are sold in European market.
5. Farmers must work hard for they can send their children to a prestigious university.
Using semicolon and transitional expression to form a compound sentence
Independent clauses (simple sentences) may also be joined together by using a semicolon with or without a transitional expression. When a transitional expression is used, it is placed in the between of a semicolon and a comma.
1. · Banana is one of popular tropical crops in Indonesia; besides, it is also an export horticultural commodity.
· Banana is one of popular tropical crops in Indonesia; it is also an export horticultural commodity.
2. · Rose can grow in a wide range of elevation; however, it requires low temperature to produce seeds.
· Rose can grow in a wide range of elevation; it requires low temperature to produce seeds.
3. · Viable pollen grains absorbed more stain and dark in colour; meanwhile, unviable pollen grains absorbed less stain and colourless.
· Viable pollen grains absorbed more stain and dark in colour; unviable pollen grains absorbed less stain and colourless.
4. · In tissue culture of Gypsophila paniculata, benzylamino purine is the most effective for shoot proliferation; moreover, it gives better shoot growth than other cytokinins.
· In tissue culture of Gypsophila paniculata, benzylamino purine is the most effective for shoot proliferation; it gives better shoot growth than other cytokinins.
5. · The phenomena of cytokinin habituation has important consequences in the tissue culture system; therefore, treatments should be given to normalised affected plantlets.
· The phenomena of cytokinin habituation has important consequences in the tissue culture system; treatments should be given to normalised affected plantlets.
The following are a number of transitional expressions commonly used in constructing compound sentences. They are grouped according to their function.
Transitional expressions indicating time (waktu):
· Afterward (kemudian)
· Earlier (terdahulu)
· At the same time (sementara itu)
· In the mean time (sementara itu)
· Later (kemudian)
· Meanwhile (sementara itu)
· Simultaneously (secara serentak)
· Soon (kemudian, segera sesudahnya)
Transitional expressions indicating emphasis (penekanan):
· Certainly (tentu)
· Indeed (sesungguhnya)
· In fact (sesungguhnya; nyatanya; pada kenyataannya)
· In short (pendek kata)
· In truth (sebenarnya; sesungguhnya)
· Of course (tentu saja; sudah barang tentu; pastilah)
Transitional expressions indicating addition (penambahan):
· Again (lagi-lagi)
· Also (juga)
· Besides (lagi pula; di samping itu)
· Equally important (sama pentingnya)
· Accordingly (sesuai dengan)
· Therefore (maka; oleh karena itu; oleh sebab itu)
· Thus (maka; jadi; dengan demikian)
· In addition (selanjutnya; selain itu; tambahan pula)
· Moreover (lagi pula)
· Further (kemudian)
· Furthermore (kemudian; selanjutnya)
Transitional expressions indicating place (tempat):
· Beyond (di luar)
· Here (di sini)
· There (di sana)
· Opposite (di sebelah; di hadapan)
· To the left (di sebelah kiri)
· To the right (di sebelah kanan)
Transitional expressions indicating contrast (perbedaan):
· However (namun; akan tetapi; tetapi)
· In contrast (sebaliknya)
· In spite of this (meskipun; walaupun)
· Nevertheless (namun; akan tetapi; tetapi)
· Notwithstanding (namun; akan tetapi; tetapi)
· On the contrary (sebaliknya)
· On the other hand (di pihak lain)
Transitional expressions indicating purpose (tujuan):
· For this purpose (dengan tujuan ini)
· To this end (untuk tujuan ini)
· With this in view (dari segi ini)
· With this in mind (dari pandangan ini)
Transitional expressions indicating details (rincian):
· Especially (terutama sekali)
· In particular (khususnya)
· Particularly (khususnya)
· Namely (yakni)
Transitional expressions indicating examples (contoh):
· For example (misalnya; contohnya; umpamanya)
· For instance (misalnya; contohnya; umpamanya)
· To illustrate (untuk jelasnya)
· Next (kemudian)
· Then (kemudian)
Transitional expression as an interrupter or parenthetic element in a sentence
The words such as however, moreover, nevertheless, on the other hand, in fact, indeed, etc. are transitional expressions when they are placed in the between two (sometimes more) independent clauses to form a compound sentence. However, they may also function as interrupters when they are placed at the beginning, at the middle, or at the end of a sentence. As interrupters they are always separated by commas. Please note that although some of interrupters can be placed anywhere in a sentence (at the beginning, middle or end), most of them can only be placed at the beginning or at the middle of the sentence.
1. · Consequently, a high concentration of plant growth regulators is required to induce callus proliferation.
· A high concentration of plant growth regulators, consequently, is required to induce callus proliferation.
· A high concentration of plant growth regulators is required to induce callus proliferation, consequently.
2. · However, callus formation is an undesirable phenomenon in a micropropagation system because it may induce genetic variation within the resulted progenies.
· Callus formation, however, is an undesirable phenomena in a micropropagation system because it may induce genetic variation within the resulted progenies.
(You can not say: Callus formation is an undesirable phenomena in a micropropagation system because it may induce genetic variation within the resulted progenies, however).
3. · In spite of this, callus proliferation is a potential source of genetic variation for breeding purposes.
· Callus proliferation, in spite of this, is a potential source of genetic variation for breeding purposes.
(You can not say: Callus proliferation is a potential source of genetic variation for breeding purposes, in spite of this).
Combine the pairs of the following independent clauses using semicolon and transitional expression given in the bracket. Make other changes as necessary and pay attention to your punctuation.
1. Nipah flourishes in the swampy areas of many islands in Indonesia.
Indonesians have not discovered the potential of this palm (however).
2. Swampy areas stretch over large islands of Sumatra, Kalimantan and Irian.
These areas are also found in islands such as Bangka and Belitung (in fact).
3. Swampy regions are subjected to ocean tides.
These areas can be reclaimed for agricultural purposes (simultaneously).
4. Sugar and alcohol can be produced from nipah plant.
Nipah plants have a great economic value (therefore).
5. The leaves of nipah can be used for roofing materials.
The jelly-like, sweet endosperm of young fruits is edible (in addition).
6. Many villagers in Riau are doing business with nipah.
Tapping the nipah for its juice is not popular yet (however).
7. People in South Sulawesi cultivate nipah in new areas.
The nipah leaves business is flourishing in South Sulawesi (for this reason).
8. Maros produces nipah leaf mats for domestic and overseas market.
Women in Maros are very skilful in making nipah leaf mats (moreover).
9. Plant scientists should do more research on nipah plants.
Funds should be made available for this research project (in the first place).
10. The juice of young shoot of nipah is used as a traditional medicine.
In Sri Lanka, the juice of young shoot of nipah is used to treat against herpes (for instance).
In the following sentences, place a parenthetic word where it is most appropriate according to context. This doesn’t mean that every sentence should has the three sets of interrupter position.
1. The vase-life of orchid increases due to the phytohormone treatments (certainly).
2. The field evaluation shows that it is only an epigenetic changes (however).
3. The genetic stability should be evaluated through a series of field and laboratory research (therefore).
4. The Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) test can be used in the genome analysis of orchid (in addition).
5. The RAPD test produce more precise results than using conventional method (moreover).
6. The molecular technology is very powerful (apparently).
7. Many laboratories are employing molecular technology in their plant breeding programme (thus).
8. This modern technology is not popular yet in Indonesia because it is very expensive (nevertheless).
9. It is a tedious work and require skilled labours (besides).
10. We have such facility in the Plant Biotechnology Laboratory (surprisingly).
Benzylaminopurine = benzilamino purin (suatu sitokinin)
Breeding programme = program pemuliaan
Callus = kalus
Callus proliferation = proliferasi kalus
Cytokinins = sitokinin
Elevation = ketinggian tempat di atas permukaan laut
Endosperm = endosperm
Epigenetic changes = perubahan-perubahan epigenetik
Genetic stability = stabilitas genetik
Genetic variation = keragaman genetik
Genome analysis = analisis genom
Habituation = habituasi
Juice = jus (cairan)
Molecular technology = teknologi molekuler
Nipah = tanaman nipah
Phytohormone = fitohormon (hormon tanaman)
Plant Biotechnology Laboratory = laboratorium Bioteknologi Tanaman
Plantlets = plantlet
Progenies = progeni
Proliferation = proliferasi (pembentukan)
Reclaimed = direklamasi (dibuka)
Rose = mawar
Shoot proliferation = proliferasi pucuk
Swampy = berawa-rawa
Swampy areas = daerah rawa-rawa
Tropical crops = tanaman tropis
Unviable = tidak viable (mati)
Viable = viable (hidup)
penulis : Prof.Dr.H.Zulkarnain