bahan kuliah THE SIMPLE TENSES



Specific instructional aims

Students are able to construct and describe the simple tenses according time and continuance.

Sub topics

·    Simple present tense
·    Simple past tense
·    Simple future tense
·    Sentence transformation

The simple present tense

There are two basic use of the simple present tense, i.e. to express the habitual actions, and to state general truths or facts.
The formula of simple present tense:  Subject + verb (type I).  Note:  the verb used should be with ‘s’ when the subject is singular third person (thing), otherwise it is without ‘s’.
1.  The rust disease attacks corn crops in Desa Suka Maju.
2.  The natural orchids are very expensive.
3.  There are two buffaloes in my rice field.
4.  Farmers in technical irrigation area grow the rice crops three times a year.
5.  Ali studies the entomology in this semester.

The simple past tense

The basic use of simple present  past tense is used to express the actions or to state the truths or facts that happen in the past.  The time markers that are used to indicate the past (completed) action are: yesterday, ago, last, etc. or simply by the use the verb in the past tense form.
The formula of simple past tense:  Subject + verb (type II).  Note:  there is no difference in the verb used for either singular or plural subjects.
1.  The rust disease attacked corn crops in Desa Suka Maju last year.
2.  The natural orchids were very expensive during the last two decade.
3.  There were two buffaloes in my rice field yesterday.
4.  Farmers in technical irrigation area grew the rice crops three times a year.
5.  Ali studied the entomology in last semester.

The simple future tense

The simple future tense describes actions, activities, or conditions in the future.  Time markers generally used are phrases employing the words such as: tomorrow, next, in, within, later, etc, or simply by the use the verb in the sentence.
There are two formulae of simple future tense:  Subject + shall/will + verb (type I) and Subject + verb to be + going to + verb (type I).
1.  The new rice variety will be available in the market in next planting season.
2.  I am going to harvest the vegetables next week.
3.  The government will increase the price of fertilizers and pesticide next year.
4.  We shall go to the meeting as soon as possible.
5.  I will make decision later.

Sentence transformation

To transform the simple present, past and future tenses into a negative form is done by simply pot the words do/does/did/will/shall + not before the verb or the word not after verb to be; and to transform the sentences into an interrogative form is done by placing the word do/does/did/will/shall, or verb to be at the beginning of the sentences.  This can also be done by adding the question words (where, when, what, how, who, whom, or whose).
1.  Farmers in Desa Suka Maju grow rice three times a year.
     - Farmers in Desa Suka Maju do not grow rice three times a year.
     - Do farmers in Desa Suka Maju grow rice three times a year?
     - Who do grow rice three times a year?
     - What do farmers in Desa Suka Maju grow three times a year?
2.  There were two buffaloes in my rice field yesterday.
     - There were no two buffaloes in my rice field yesterday.

Students’ activity

Assignment 1

Complete the following sentences by filling in the blanks with the correct tense of the verb given in the brackets.
1.   Swainsona formosa ………. (to be) one of Australian native legumes.
2.   The farmers ………. (to harvest) their cabbages yesterday, and will sell them this morning.
3.   Mr. Handoko ………. (to be) going to grow lettuce next month.
4.   In 2000, we ………. (to go) to Agricultural Exhibition in Bogor.
5.   Hasan and Husin ………. (to be) in their rice field last night.
6.   The eggplant ………. (to grow) abundantly in Pal Merah.
7.   Farmers in Kerinci ………. (to grow) potato for their living.
8.   Next week my uncle ………. (to employ) many workers to pick the tomatoes.
9.   The organic farming ………. (to be) now very popular in Australia.
10. The plant breeders ………. (to work) hard to improve crop quality via biotechnology.

Assignment 2

Change the following sentences into interrogatives using the helping verbs (do, does, did) or using the question words (what, where, when, who, how, whose, whom) given at the end of each sentences.
1.   Indonesia was the largest rubber producer in the world in 1970s (When).
2.   Mahmud is a successful orchid grower in our town (Who).
3.   Hasan graduated from University of Jambi last year (When).
4.   The grasshoppers attacked our rice plants (What).
5.   Farmers in Kerinci solve the plant disease problem by applying pesticides (How).
6.   Plant pest and disease are serious problems in vegetable crops during rainy season (What).
7.   The agricultural extension will be held in Village Hall tonight (Where).
8.   The eucalypts is growing in arid region of Australia (Where).
9.   Jimmy Carter was a successful peanut grower in USA (Who).
10. Many food crops are propagated by using vegetative organs (How).

Vocabulary list

Entomology                            =  ilmu mengenai serangga
Food crops                              =  tanaman pangan
Legumes                                 =  tanaman legum (kacang-kacangan)
Lettuce                                    =  selada (Lactuca sativa)
Orchid                                      =  anggrek
Plant breeder                         =  pemulia tanaman
Planting season                    = musim tanam
Rust disease                          =  penyakit karat
Subsistence                           =  subsisten (untuk memenuhi kebutuhan sendiri)
Swainsona formosa              =  Sturt’s desert pea (suatu tanaman hias legum asli Australia)
Tomato                                    =  tomat
Variety                                     =  varietas
Vegetative                               =  vegetatif

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