Specific instructional aims

Students understand and are able to describe the use of verbs in participle forms and in participial phrases.


Sub topics

·         present participle (-ing form)
·         past participle (-ed form)
·         participial phrases
As we have learned in previous chapters, there are two types of participles: present participle and past participle.  The present participle is indicated by “ing” attached to a verb (“ing” form), and the past participle is generally indicated by “ed” attached to a verb (except for irregular verbs that have special form of past participle).  These participial forms can function as adjectives (called verbal adjectives), such as: hard working farmer, increasing price, cultivated land, broken tree, etc.  Like adjectives, they qualify nouns or pronouns, and like verbs, they may take objects and may be described by adverbial qualifiers.  Therefore, a participle with qualifiers or objects is called participial phases.  However, participles are commonly used as qualifiers of the nouns that follow them.  In the following examples, observe several positions of the participles and participial phases, and the nouns and pronouns they qualify.

Present and past participles

The following are some examples of sentences employing present and past participles.
1.  Increasing price of fertilizers and pesticides will impose high production cost on agricultural products.
     (“increasing” is a present participle qualifying the noun “price of fertilizers and pesticides”).
2.  The government introduces the biological control as a part of integrated pest management program.
     (“integrated” is a past participle qualifying the noun “pest management program”).
3.  Fifty percent of germinating seeds died due to high temperature.
     (“germinating” is a present participle qualifying the noun “seeds”).
4.  The fused protoplasts grow into individual called cell hybrid or cybrid.
     (“fused” is a past participle qualifying the noun “protoplasts”).
5.  The specimen was left overnight in a staining solution.
     (“staining” is a present participle qualifying the noun “solution”).

Participial phrases

In the following examples you will see that the participial phrases may come before of after the noun or pronoun they qualify.  However, the participial word in the phrase should clearly indicate the noun or pronoun it qualifies.
1.  The “ani-ani” is a traditional tool used by farmers in harvesting local rice variety.
     (“used by farmers” is a participial phrase qualifying the noun “traditional tool”).
2.  Most farmers living in transmigration area came from Java.
     (“living in transmigration area” is a participial phrase qualifying the noun “farmers”).
3.  Plants grown in a glasshouse are normally free from pest and disease problems.
     (“grown in a glasshouse” is a participial phrase qualifying the noun “plants”).
4.  Plants showing the symptoms of virus disease should be eradicated as soon as possible.
     (“showing the symptom of virus disease” is a participial phrase qualifying the noun “plants”).
5.  The microscope used by the scientists in identifying the pathogens is called electron microscope.
     (“used by the scientists in identifying the pathogens” is a participial phrase qualifying the noun “microscope”)

Students’ activity

Assignment 1

Make your own sentences employing present participle, past participle, and participial phrases  (5 each).

Assignment 2

In the following passage, the participles and participial phrases are not identified.  Pick them out!

Tissue Culture of Guichenotia macrantha
A study on the tissue culture of Guichenotia macrantha has been conducted at the Tissue Culture Laboratory, School of Agriculture and Forestry, the University of Melbourne, from January through to September 1995.  The results showed that the application of plant growth regulators, particularly auxin and cytokinin, significantly enhanced plant regeneration from single node explants using similar protocol applied to other ornamental species, such as rose and carnation.  It was estimated 15 to 25 millions plants can be raised within a year from a single stock plant via this method.  This promising results will, of course, boost the application of plant tissue culture technique on the propagation of ornamental plants. 
However, there are some other problems associated with this technique that should be overcome in order to obtain success.  These include the physiological status of stock plants from where the culture materials are obtained, environmental condition where the donor plants are maintained, and environmental condition where the explants were incubated.  Plant materials obtained from a healthy and actively growing stock plants will produce explants that are highly responsive to culture.  In addition, plants grown in glasshouse with adequate nutrient and water supply, as well as strict pest control may also provide explants with high regenerative ability.  Finally, the growing condition in culture room such as temperature, light intensity, photoperiod, and medium composition will also greatly affect the rate of success of tissue culture technique.
The result of our study presented here revealed only one of such factors, i.e. the use of plant growth regulators.  Therefore, further investigation is required in order to obtain a complete picture of factors affecting the success of G. macrantha propagation using tissue culture technique.
(Source (with some alterations):  Zulkarnain.  1995.  The application of plant tissue culture in the propagation of  Guichenotia macrantha Turcz.  Master Thesis.  School of Agriculture and Forestry, The University of Melbourne, Australia).

Vocabulary list

Biological control                           =  pengendalian secara biologis
Carnation                                        =  anyelir
Cell hybrid                                      =  hibrid sel
Culture room,                                  =  ruang kultur
Explants                                          =  eksplan
Germinate                                       =  berkecambah
Glasshouse                                     =  rumah kaca
Integrated pest management          =  pengelolaan hama terpadu
Light intensity                                =  intensitas cahaya
Medium composition                     =  komposisi medium
Nutrient                                          =  hara
Ornamental species                       =  spesies tanaman hias
Pathogens                                      =  patogen
Pest control                                   =  pengendalian hama
Photoperiod                                   =  fotoperiodesitas
Rose                                              =  mawar
Single node                                   =  nodus tunggal
Staining solution                           =  larutan pewarna

penulis : Prof.Dr.H.Zulkarnain