bahan pelajaran NOUN COMPOUNDS




Specific instructional aims

Students understand and able to construct noun compounds by combining simple words, and employ the noun compounds in sentences.

Sub topics

·         noun + noun combination
·         adjective + noun combination

·         verb + noun combination

Noun compound (also called noun adjunct) are group of words, usually two but sometimes more, joined together into one vocabulary that function as a single part of speech.  A noun compound may consists of noun+noun, adjective+noun or verb+noun.

Noun compounds consist of noun+noun

1.  Palm oil plantations are found along the road from Jambi to Palembang.
2.  Vegetable oil is one of Indonesia’s export commodities to Australia.
3.  One of the ways to increase rice production has been the creation of new rice varieties through a series of research.
4.  The baby corns and lettuce can be grown in a multiple cropping system.
5.  Various farm products from Kerinci such as fruits and vegetables are exported to Asean countries.

Noun compounds consist of adjective+noun

1.  Floriculture is a branch of horticultural science studying the cultivation of ornamental plants.
2.  The Bogor Botanical Garden is the largest garden in South East Asia, in terms of its flora and fauna.
3.  The old farmer is still strong enough to work everyday in his farm.
4.  To stimulate root growth on a hard wood cutting, you must apply an auxin at 1000 ppm.
5.  The quality of a flower is determined by its floral features such as diameter, peduncle length, colour and fragrance.

Noun compounds consist of verb+noun

1.  The travel agent plays an important role in promoting agro-tourism in Indonesia.
2.  The control mechanism of temperature, light intensity and photoperiod in a growth chamber are by a control panel outside the chamber.
3.  In plant tissue culture system, the inoculation of the explant is carried out in a transfer cabinet to avoid microbial contamination.
4.  Any plants and animals brought from overseas should be checked by a quarantine officer for their healthy and safety to human being.
5.  Don’t forget to complete the check list before submitting your application form.

Students’ activity

Assignment 1

Make your own sentences employing the following noun compounds.  You may add other noun compound(s) in the same sentence to support your idea.
·   Food crops                                                   ·   Harvest time
·   Growing season                                         ·   Rain forest
·   Germ plasm                                                 ·   Hybrid crop
·   Artificial drying                                            ·   Growth habit
·   Pest control                                                 ·   Modern technology
·   Hand tractor                                                 ·   Tuber crops
·   Hot pepper                                                   ·   Rice field
·   Agricultural development                          ·   Rural area
·   Ornamental plants                                     ·   Technical irrigation system

Assignment 2

The following is an article published in a scientific journal.  Read the passage carefully, and identify the noun compounds in the combination already discussed.

Chromosome number in Swainsona formosa (Fabaceae)

Sturt’s desert pea, Swainsona formosa (G.Don) J.Thompson (syn. Clianthus formosus (G.Don) Ford & Vick.), is one of Australia's most spectacular wild flowers (Williams & Taji), and is the floral emblem of South Australia. It has large flag-shaped flowers, which are generally colored bright red but may be pure white to deep purple in some wild specimens.  The economic importance of this plant is in its potential use in a hanging basket or container plant, or as a cut flower plant.  It is in demand in the domestic cut flower market and is exported particularly to Japan.
One of the impediments to the commercialization of Sturt’s desert pea as a cut flower include the production of large amounts of pollen grains.  This causes reduction in flower quality because of petal staining by pollen grains which are shed during transport.  In addition, pollination may occur during transport resulting in rapid degeneration of the flowers, thus, reduction in the vase life of flowers.  Our work focuses on the production of male-sterile plants or plants with no pollen grains, by manipulating the ploidy level and obtaining triploids.
To our knowledge this is the first report of the chromosome number of Sturt’s desert pea.  it is part of our comprehensive study on breeding systems of this species.  Determining the diploid chromosome number of untreated material allows us to assess the success of treatment to induce poliploidy.
Plants used in this study were collected as seeds in South Australia, then germinated and propagated in glasshouse.  Voucher specimen NE 70130 is lodged in the NCW Beadle Herbarium, University of New England.  Materials for root tip squash were sampled from seeds and materials for anther squash were taken from young flower buds.  Both seeds and flower buds were from 20 plants.
Sixty seeds from 20 different plants were germinated in Petri dishes in a 16:8 h light:dark cycle and roots from 3-day-old seedlings were collected 1 h after lights were switched on.  These roots were immediately soaked in 0.1% colchicine solution for 4 h at room temperature to prevent spindle elongation. Roots were then rinsed with sterile distilled water and stored in 70% alcohol at 4oC until required.
The roots were hydrolysed with stain-acid mixture (9 parts of 1% aceto-orcein + 1 part of 1 N HCl) and gently heated over an alcohol flame for 1 minute to help the uptake of the stain. The roots remained in the stain-acid mixture for about 10 minutes.  The meristematic tip was then excised (± 0.5 mm) on a slide and macerated in a small drop of 1% aceto-orcein (without HCl), squashed, and gently warmed over an alcohol flame for 30 sec.
For anther squash, 20 plants were selected as the sample of plant materials.  Anthers from young floral buds (13.7 – 13.9 mm long) were squashed in a few drops of 1% aceto-orcein (without HCl) and gently warmed over an alcohol flame for 30 sec.
Slides were examined under a microscope, and 4 – 6 cells from each sample were counted to ensure that a consistent count was achieved. Chromosomes were photographed with Kodak ASA 400 film and scanned with a Hewlet Packard ScanJet 4200C scanner.  Whole images were then manipulated with Adobe PhotoDeluxe Home Edition 3.0 for clearer viewing.
Mitotic chromosomes at metaphase were examined, but they were too small for karyotype analysis.  Although photographs were not clear enough for counting the chromosomes, counting under the microscope indicated that the 2n = 16.  A clearer photograph was obtained from an anther squash showing that n = 8 in the pollen grains.
The genus Swainsona is placed in the tribe Galegeae sub-tribe Coluteinea.  Chromosome counts have been obtained from a number of Swainsona species.  Hair (1963) first reported chromosome numbers in S. novae-zelandiae (Montigena novae-zelandiae in Heenan (1998a)) as 2n = 32.  The same chromosome count of 2n = 32 was also found in S. canescens, S. occidentalis, S. cyclocarpa, S. stipularis (Sands, 1975) and S. galegifolia (Ermayanti et al., 1993).
In her revision of the genus, Thompson (1993) stated that Swainsona has a uniform chromosome number of 2n = 2x = 32. Heenan (1998b) also suggested that the chromosome number of Swainsona species with standard modified with a boss is 2n = 32, but differs from a group of species lacking in modifications that have a chromosome number of 2n = 16 or 24.  It seems that the chromosome number of 2n = 32 is common in Swainsona.  However, the Australian genera in sub-tribe Coluteineae such as Sutherlandia, Lessertia, Colutea, Sphaerophysa and Smirnowia all have species with 2n = 16 (Polhill and Raven, 1981).  We suggest that the count of 2n = 16 in S. formosa favors the basic number of x = 8 in Swainsona and confirms the base chromosome number of x = 8 in the Gelegeae as previously proposed by Goldblatt (1991).

(Source (with modifications):  Zulkarnain Z., A. Taji and N. Prakash.  2002.  Chromosome number in Swainsona formosa (Fabaceae).  New Zealand Journal of Botany, 40:331-333).

Vocabulary list

Agro-tourism                              =  agro wisata
Baby corns                                =  jagung semi
Boss                                            =  salah satu mahkota bunga yang mengalami modifikasi
Botanical Garden                     =  kebun raya
Breeding systems                     =  sistem pembiakan (seksual)
Cutting                                       =  penyetekan
Farm products                           =  produk pertanian
Flag-shaped                              =  berbentuk bendera
Floral emblem                           =  bunga simbol
Floral features                           =  fitur bunga
Floriculture                                =  ilmu yang mempelajari tanaman hias
Fragrance                                  =  aroma
Growth chamber                       =  ruang tumbuh
Hard wood                                 =  berkayu keras
Horticultural science                =  ilmu hortikultura
Hydrolised                                 =  hidrolisis
Impediment                                =  hambatan
Karyotype analysis                   =  analisis karyotipe
Male-sterile                                =  mandul jantan
Meristematic                              =  meristematik
Microbial contamination          =  kontaminasi mikroba
Mitotic chromosome                 =  kromosom mitosis
Palm oil plantation                   =  perkebunan kelapa sawit
Peduncle                                   =  tangkai bunga
Ploidy                                         =  ploidi
Pollen grain                               =  serbuk sari
Polyploidy                                  =  poliploidi
ppm (part per million)               =  per sejuta (konsentrasi)        
Quarantine officer                    =  petugas karantina
Spectacular                               =  spektakuler
Spindle                                       =  benang kromosom)
Transfer cabinet                       =  kotak pindah (pada teknik kultur jaringan)
Triploid                                       =  triploid
Vase life                                     =  lama masa hidup bunga di dalam jambangan
Vegetable oil                             =  minyak sayur
Wild flower                                 =  bunga liar
Wild specimen                          =  jenis (tanaman) liar

penulis : Prof.Dr.H.Zulkarnain