Specific instructional aims

Students understand and able to construct complex sentences consisting of independent clause and subordinate clause (dependent clause).

Sub topics

·         complex sentences employing adverbial clause.
·         complex sentences employing adjective clause.
·         complex sentences employing noun clause (as subject of verb, as object of verb, as subject complement, as an appositive, as object of preposition)

A complex sentence is a sentence containing an independent clause and one or more dependent clause.  Like a compound sentence, a complex sentence has an independent clause; however, the dependent clause (or subordinate) clause is introduced by a subordinate conjunction, which is sometimes referred as a clause a clause signal.  Different from a coordinate conjunction or a transitional expression, a subordinate conjunction is part of the clause, and this makes the dependent clause an incomplete thought, or a fragment, though it has a subject and a predicate.  The dependent clause may come at the beginning or at the end of a complex sentence.

Complex sentences employing adverbial clause

An adverbial clause, as the name suggests, functions as an adverb and relates to the verb in the main or independent clause because it modifies the verb.  The adverbial clause modifies or explain eight different aspects of the verbs, i.e.: 1) time, 2) place, 3) manner, 4) comparison, 5) reason, 6) result, 7) condition, and 8) contrast/concession.  The subordinate conjunction of the clause will indicate its meaning and to which type of adverbial clause it belongs.  The following are some examples of adverbial clauses arranged according to the meaning of the subordinate conjunction.  The adverbial clause is in italics and the verb it modifies in italics.

Adverbial clause of time
Subordinate conjunctions used are: when, whenever, while, since, after, before, until, till, etc.
1.  Jono was working in the rice field when the buffalo attacked him.
2.  We will keep on watering the paddy until they enter the reproductive stage.
3.  Germinating seeds consume the endosperm for energy source before roots can function normally.
4.  We grow peanuts, eggplants and sweet potatoes since we moved here two years ago.
5.  In a glasshouse you can grow the plants whenever you want to.

Adverbial clause of place
Subordinate conjunctions used are: where, wherever, etc.
1.  The fusarium wilt disease usually occurs in place where there is high temperature along with high humidity.
2.  Ferns grow well in forest floor where rain falls abundantly.
3.  The spores of fungi can germinate wherever they can get water and carbohydrate supply.
4.  During dry season many animals including birds and rabbits migrate to places where they can get enough food.
5.  The plant pathologists will carry out research wherever they can get adequate facilities.

Adverbial clause of manner
Subordinate conjunctions used are: as, like, just like, as if, etc.
1.  Farmers set up several scarecrows on their rice field as if there are so many birds that should be kept away from stealing the rice.
2.  Jono did the fruit picking very well as he was instructed by the manager.
3.  We always take care of the plant like other farmers do.
4.  The number of poor farmer in Indonesia is increasing as reported by FAO.
5.  The buffalo leave Jono alone and unhurt as if there is nothing happen.

Adverbial clause of reason/purpose
Subordinate conjunctions used are: as, because, because of, since, due to, for, so that, in order, etc.
1.  Plants grown under low light intensity are taller than those grown under high light intensity because of auxin activity is higher under low light intensity.
2.  The flowers soon degenerate due to high temperature.
3.  Many rice fields are flooded with water because the dam is broken.
4.  The diseased plants should be quarantined so that the cause can be studied.
5.  The government promise to provide more funds for research in order to encourage plant breeding program.

Adverbial clause of results
Subordinate conjunctions used are: so …… that, such ……. that, etc.
1.  The disease attack was so severe that caused high production lost.
2.  The soil is so poor that we can not grow any plant on it.
3.  It was such a beautiful orchid that I could not see it died because of high concentration of fertilizer.
4.  It is such a heavy rain that we must stay at home until it is over.
5.  The production cost of vegetables is so high that farmers can not sell them in low price.

Adverbial clause of condition
Subordinate conjunctions used are: if, whether, unless, provided (that), on condition (that), etc.
1.  Plants will grow better if they are well fertilized.
2.  The quarantine officer is checking the imported plants to see if there is contaminated plant.
3.  We need to know whether the irrigation system still works well or require fixing.
4.  The potato crops will easily attacked by viruses unless the host plants are eradicated.
5.  Virus control is very easy on condition that the growing area is free from weeds and other debris.

Adverbial clause of contrast/concern
Subordinate conjunctions used are: although, though, even though, no matter how, if, even if, etc.
1.  You should spray the plants regularly even if they look very healthy.
2.  Tomatoes can grow well and produce high quality of fruits if they are watered and fertilized well.
3.  Mycoplasm is very difficult to overcome although the growing area are kept clear of weeds.
4.  Farmers have to buy the fertilizers no matter the price is high.
5.  Pineapple can grow on peat soils even though the pH is low.

Complex sentences employing adjective clause

As it has been discussed, an adjective modifies a noun or pronoun.  Therefore, as the name suggests, an adjective clause is a dependent clause that function as an adjective, and it modifies noun or pronoun.  The adjective clause modifies or explain five different aspects of the nouns: person, thing, time, place, reason.  The subordinate conjunction or clause signals fir adjective clause are:
·   who, whose, whom, that Þ for person.
·   which, that Þ for thing.
·   when Þ for time.
·   where Þ for place.
·   why Þ for reason.
The following examples are the sentences employing adjective clauses.  Observe the use of subordinate conjunctions or clause signals.  The adjective clause is in italics and the noun it modifies is in boldface.
1.    The endosperm, which is in the inner part of the seeds, provides foods during seed germination.
2.    The young and mature anther walls in S. formosa, which laid under the single-layered epidermis, consisted of three layers: endothecium, middle layer and tapetum.
3.    Pollination in S. formosa is often hampered by the presence of a stigmatic cuticle that prevents pollen germination until the stigmatic cuticle is ruptured.
4.    A layer comprising osteosclereids that are called “hour-glass” cells were present in the layer beneath the palisade cells.
5.    This hormone is formed in the leaves, and is transported to the apical meristem where it evokes changes committing the plant to flower formation.
6.    Richard Williams and Acram Taji, who studied the Swainsona formosa for years claimed that this species belongs to the subfamily Papilionoideae of the family Fabaceae.
7.    Joy Thompson, who reclassified Clianthus formosus into S. formosa stated that the genus Swainsona has a uniform chromosome number of 2n = 32.
8.    On January last year, when farmers had just finished transferring the seedlings, the flood came to destroy everything on the rice field.
9.    The seed bed, where they prepared the seedlings was also destroyed by the flood.
10.  Therefore, it is the reason, why farmers in Batanghari area did not grow rice last year.

Complex sentences employing noun clause

As the name suggests, a noun clause functions as a noun.  They are used as the subject of a verb, as the object of a verb, as the object of a preposition, as a subjective complement, and as an appositive.  The following are some of the clause signals or introductory word for noun clauses:
·      how
·      that
·      whether
·      how far
·      what
·      which
·      how long
·      whatever
·      who
·      how many
·      when
·      whoever
·      how often
·      whenever
·      whom
·      how old
·      where
·      whose
·      how soon
·      wherever
·      why

The following are some examples of the function of a noun clause in a complex sentence.  The noun clause is in italics, and the verb is in boldface.

Noun clause as the subject of a verb
1.  The hypothesis that auxin plays an important role in seed germination is still in questioned.
2.  That the vegetative propagation offers many advantages is obvious, but most farmers prefer generative propagation because it’s easy.
3.  Why rice production in Muaro Jambi is lower than in Batanghari should be investigated, but there is no funds to carry out research.
4.  Botanists in Bogoriense Herbarium are studying how fern spores survive high environmental temperatures.
5.  What the pests do to the food crops disturbs the farmers as well as the consumers.

Noun clause as the object of a verb
1.  The pollen tubes travel down the style and enter the ovary where fertilization take place.
2.  Jono reported (that) virus disease can not be overcome using antibiotics such as tetramycine, streptomycin, or penicillin.
3.  We do not know whether she will take the Introductory to Agricultural Economics course this year.
4.  It has been understood now why virus can not attack meristematic region of plant tissues.
5.  Scientists are investigating how plant genetic material is inherited from one generation to the next.

Note:   The clause signal “that” may be omitted without changing the meaning of the sentence.

Some grammarians sometimes referred noun clauses as object clauses because they are frequently used as objects of verbs.  The verbs commonly used noun clause (they are also called verbs of mental activity) are:
·      realize
·      decide
·      remark
·      say
·      ask
·      state
·      think
·      wonder
·      explain
·      inquire
·      remember
·      believe
·      notice
·      determine
·      question
·      tell
·      complain
·      claim
·      answer
·      mention
·      report
·      know
·      understand
·      conclude
·      see
·      inform
·      suggest, etc.

Noun clause as a subjective complement
1.  The problem is that the farmers do not want to adopt the new technology.
2.  The model farmer is whoever has a high dedication and commitment to agricultural development, particularly in rural areas.
3.  The meeting decided what the farmers expected i.e. the transparency of government aid management.
4.  We have proposed where the research will be conducted next year.
5.  The investigation should be focused on how long it will take from culture initiation to somatic embryos formation.

Noun clause as an appositive
1.  The idea, that agricultural sector should be the priority of national development, is highly supported by many experts.
2.  The hypothesis of this research, which is stated in the introduction, is not supported by adequate literatures.
3.  The ceramic pots, where we usually put cut flowers, was bought in Beijing when we had a visit to China last year.
4.  The research question, whether flower initiation was dependent on light spectrum, has been clearly answered by his investigation on pea crops.
5.  The scientists, who discovered the traditional medicine for HIV, was awarded a Nobel prize.

Noun clause as an object of a preposition
1.  He is looking forward to hearing what has been decided by the meeting on the eradication of rats and insects.
2.  The tea pickers near mount Kerinci are worried about whether or not the volcano will erupts in a few days.
3.  He was shocked by what he saw after the flood in his rice field.
4.  The study was focused on how we could eliminate virus particle via tissue culture technique.
5.  A group of farmers from Muaro Jambi was very impressed by what they saw in Mekar Sari fruit garden.

Besides some functions that have been mentioned before, “that” noun clause also occur in sentences with anticipatory “it”.  See examples below:
1.  It is clear that agricultural development can not be separated from technology invention.
2.  It has been known that there are two types of seed germination, epigeal and hypogeal.
3.  It is concluded that the conversion from vegetative to reproductive growth is affected by the synthesis of floral hormone called florigen.
4.  It was true that we can not rely on the agricultural sector without paying attention to its relationship to other sectors such as mining and industry.
5.  It was decided that every students must have a copy of English for Students in Agriculture (PNU 122): A Resource Book by the end of next month.

Students’ activity

You have learned the three types of clauses (adverbial, adjective, noun clauses).  In the following passage, pick out each clause and indicate its name and function.

“Hama Wereng”:  The Brown Planthopper
It is difficult to state that the gain from pesticide use against insect damage and disease on farm and in forests is great.  Although outbreaks are occasional, they are frequently both unpredictable and devastating.  One instance of this was the rice crop damage by brown planthopper which occurred in Indonesia in the 1970’s.  Fortunately, Indonesian agricultural scientists who were quickly alerted to the problem did thorough investigations on the pests.  Millions of rupiah were spent on research and demonstration projects.  Even though the country became self-sufficient in rice production in 1986, achieving this virtually cost of fortune in terms of government funds and lost domestic rice production prior to 1980’s.  Pesticides were, undoubtedly, responsible for the eradication of the brown planthoppers because attack was unpredictable.  All farmers could think of was pesticide use.  How they could eradicate the brown planthopper was then their main objective.  Although other Indonesian scientists began to look for new rice varieties that were resistant to brown plathopper, the immediate answer to their problem was pesticides.  During the wild attack by brown plathoppers, which pesticides were used to terminate the pests did not matter anymore to farmers.  As long as the pesticides were not dangerous to humans, they were applied to the Indonesian rice fields then.
(Source:  Rangkuti-Hasibuan, S.  1990.  English for Specific Purposes: Agriculture.  PT. Gramedia Pustaka Utama, Jakarta, p. 220).

Vocabulary list

Anther wall                                     =  dinding antera
Antibiotic                                        =  antibiotik
Apical meristem                             =  meristem pucuk
Auxin                                              =  auksin
Botanist                                          =  pakar botani
Brown planthopper                       =  wereng coklat
Cut flower                                       =  bunga potong
Eggplant                                         =  terong
Endothecium                                 =  endotesium
Epigeal                                           =  tipe perkecambahan biji terangkat ke atas
Eradication                                     =  eradikasi
Fern                                                 =  suflir
Fertilization                                    =  pertilisasi (pembuahan)
Flooded                                          =  banjir
Flower formation                           =  pembentukan bunga
Forest floor                                     =  dasar hutan
Fruit picking                                   =  memetik buah
Fungi                                              =  cendawan
Fusarium wilt disease                  =  penyakit layu fusarium
Generative propagation               =  perbanyakan tanaman secara generatif
Glasshouse                                   =  rumah kaca
Hypogeal                                        =  tipe perkecambahan biji tetap di tanah
Hypothesis                                     =  hipotesis
Light intensity                                =  intensitas cahaya
Light spectrum                               =  spektrum cahaya
Meristematic region                      =  daerah meristematik
Middle layer                                   =  lapisan tengah
Mycoplasm                                     =  mikoplasma
Orchid                                             =  anggrek
Osteosclereid                                 =  osteosklereid
Ovary                                               =  ovarium (kandung telur)
Palisade cell                                  =  sel-sel palisade
Pea                                                  =  kacang-kacangan
Peanut                                            =  kacang tanah
Peat                                                 =  tanah gambut
Plant pathologist                           =  pakar penyakit tanaman
Plant tissue                                    =  jaringan tanaman
Pollen tube                                    =  buluh serbuk sari
Pollination                                      =  polinasi (penyerbukan)
Quarantine officer                        =  petugas karantina
Quarantined                                  =  dikarantinakan
Self-sufficient                                =  swa sembada
Somatic embryo                            =  embryo somatik
Spores                                            =  spora
Stigmatic cuticle                            =  kutikula stigma
Sweet potato                                  =  ubi jalar
Tapetum                                         =  tapetum
Tea picker                                       =  pemetik teh
Tissue culture technique            =  teknik kultur jaringan tanaman
Vegetative propagation                =  perbanyakan tanaman secara vegetatif