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bahan ajaran MODAL AUXILIARIES


CHAPTER 5

MODAL AUXILIARIES



Specific instructional aims

Students are able to describe and construct sentences employing modal auxiliaries appropriately according to the time markers.

Sub topics

·      Modal auxiliaries used in present tense.
·      Modal auxiliaries used in past tense.

Modal auxiliaries (also called modal verbs) are special verbs that has special meaning and function, and normally used to modify other verbs.  Modal auxiliaries are only used in present or past tenses, but the present tense is also used to describe the future tense. 
In the present or future tenses, the modal auxiliaries are accompanied by the simple form of verbs (the infinitive without “to”).  However, in past tense there are two forms of modal auxiliaries used, i.e. simply use the past form or use the past form in combination with present perfect form.  Thus, the formula of sentences employing modal auxiliaries are as follows:
Present and future tense    :   Subject + modal (present) + verb (type I)
Past tense                               :   Subject + modal (past) + verb (type I)
                                                        Subject + modal (past) + have + verb (type III)
There are six words that are categorized as modal auxiliaries as indicated in the following table.

Modal auxiliaries
Present/future
Past
Can
Can
Could
Could have
May
May
Might
Might have
Shall
Shall
Should
Should have
Will
Will
Would
Would have
Must (have/has to)
Must (have/has to)
Must (had to)
Must have
Ought to
Ought to
Ought to
Ought to have
Examples:
1. A strong insecticide can kill grasshoppers and bugs effectively.
     -   A strong insecticide could kill grasshoppers and bugs effectively.
     -   A strong insecticide could have killed grasshoppers and bugs effectively.
2. Severe virus infestation may cause great lost in crop production.
     -   Severe virus infestation might cause great lost in crop production.
     -   Severe virus infestation might have caused great lost in crop production.
3. Hasan shall go to the farm early in the morning.
     -   Hasan should go to the farm early in the morning.
     -   Hasan should have gone to the farm early in the morning.
4. We will grow pineapples in our back yard tomorrow.
     -   We would grow pineapples in our back yard tomorrow.
     -   We would have grown pineapples in our back yard tomorrow.
5. They must spray the fungicide to solve the fungus infestation.
     -   They had to spray the fungicide to solve the fungus infestation.
     -   They must have sprayed the fungicide to solve the fungus infestation.
6. The government ought to provide us with adequate facilities for agricultural education.
     -   The government ought to provide us with adequate facilities for agricultural education.
     -   The government ought to have provided us with adequate facilities for agricultural education.
Please note that in the case of past tense of should have, ought to have and must have, there is a slight different in the meaning.  In the first two, the modal auxiliaries indicate that the action is not performed or done yet.  Therefore, the sentence saying “Hasan should have gone to the farm early in the morning” means that although it was advisable for Hasan to go early in the morning, he did not do so.  This situation is referred as “unfulfilled actions”.  Meanwhile, in the third modal auxiliary, there is an assumption that the action has been done completely.  Thus, the sentence saying “They must have sprayed the fungicide to solve the fungus infestation” means that they have already done the fungicide spray.
Ought to is sometimes used without a following verb if the meaning is clear, for example:  Should we begin soon?  Yes, we ought to.  In a question and negative sentences, especially those with contractions, to is sometimes moitted, for example: Oughtn’t we be going soon?  Although the omission of to was formerly possible in English, it is now considered nonstandard.

Sentence transformation

The transformation of sentences using modal auxiliaries into a negative is done by adding the negation not after the modal verb.  Whereas to transform the sentence into an interrogative can be done by putting the modal verb at the beginning of the sentence followed by subject and predicate (a verb), or by using a question word followed by the modal verb, subject and predicate.
Examples:
1.  They can grow the tomato in a plastic house.
     -   They can not grow the tomato in a plastic house.
     -   Can they grow the tomato in a plastic house?
     -   Where can they grow the tomato?
2. We should do watering two times a day.
     -   We should not do watering two times a day.
     -   Should we do watering two times a day?
     -   How many times should we do watering?
3. Hasan should have gone to the farm early in the morning.
-       Hasan should not have gone to the farm early in the morning.          
-       Should Hasan have gone to the farm early in the morning?
     -   When should Hasan have gone to the farm?
For the modal auxiliary have/has to, the auxiliary do/does is used for present or future, and did is used for the past tense.
Examples:
1. The government has to increase the fund for agricultural development.
     -   The government does not have to increase the fund for agricultural development.
     -   Does the government have to increase the fund for agricultural development.
     -   What does the government have to increase?
2. Farmers had to adopt the modern technology.
     -   Farmers did not have to adopt the modern technology.
     -   Did farmers have to adopt the modern technology?
     -   Who did have to adopt the modern technology?

 

Students’ activity

Assignment 1

Change the following sentences into past tense form using appropriate modal auxiliary:
1.    Farmers have to build an irrigation system in the area.
2.    She may leave the plantation at 12.00 o’clock.
3.    The virus attack can spread via insects as the vector.
4.    The government must control the price of crude palm oil (CPO).
5.    The increase in fuel price will affect the agricultural sector significantly.
6.    We shall buy new farm machineries by the end of this year.
7.    My aunty has to sell one of her rice fields to pay the her son’s tuition fee this year.
8.    You ought to understand that the virus problem is not easy to solve.
9.    The Minister of Agriculture will come to Kampus Pinang Masak to deliver a speech at the 42nd Unja Anniversary.
10.  They must decide which rice variety that will be grown this year.

Assignment 2

Change the following sentences into negative and interrogative forms (you may use question word):
1.    Nut meg can grow in acid soils.
2.    Farmers in Sungai Landai will harvest their peppers within two weeks.
3.    The rubber factory will operate next year.
4.    Scientists must do some studies to search new rice varieties.
5.    You shall grow good quality seeds from Seed Station to produce better harvest.
6.    Rudi ought to go to the Balai Desa to attend the agricultural extension.
7.    Many transmigrants can build a better living in the transmigration area in Rimbo Bujang.
8.    The results of this research shall give benefit to poor farmers in remote area.
9.    We can cultivate our land by using simple equipments.
10.  I shall go to the university to become an agricultural expert.

 

Vocabulary list

Acid soils                             =  tanah masam
Bugs                                     =  hama kutu
Crude Palm Oil (CPO)         =  minyak sawit mentah
Fungus                                  =  cendawan
Grasshoppers                        =  belalang
Insect                                     =  serangga
Nut meg                                 =  kemiri
Pepper                                    =  lada
Plantation                              =  perkebunan
Remote area                          =  daerah terpencil
Seed Station                          =  balai benih
Vector                                    =  serangga pembawa virus



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