bahan ajaran THE CONTINUOUS AND THE PERFECT TENSES


CHAPTER 4

THE CONTINUOUS AND THE PERFECT TENSES



Specific instructional aims

Students are able to construct and describe the sentences that are using continuous and perfect tenses.

Sub topics

·    Present and past continuous tenses
·    Present and past perfect tenses

The present continuous tense

The present continuous tense is used to describe actions or conditions that are taking place at the present time, and for a period of time which includes the present time.  Time markers generally used for present time are: now, this moment, these days, nowadays, or simply use the continuous tense in a sentence.
The formula of present continuous tense: Subject + verb to be (is, am, are) + verb (type I) + ing.
Examples:
1.  The virus diseases are attacking citrus farm in Kumpeh Ulu, Jambi.
2.  Farmers in Kayu Aro are growing potatoes, carrots and other vegetables.
3.  The extension officer is presenting the methods of making compost.
4.  Budi is doing intercropping between lettuce and baby corn.
5.  I am cultivating my land by using hand-tractor.

The past continuous tense

The past continuous tense is seldom used alone in a sentence.  This type of tense is usually used in combination with an event in the past, which is stated or simply implied.
The formula of past continuous tense: Subject + verb to be (was, were) + verb (type I) + ing.
Examples:
1.  For an action happening in the past:
     -   Tono was spraying the rice field with insecticides.
2. For two actions happening at the same time in the past:
     -   Tono was spraying the rice field while his wife was clearing the weeds.
3. For two actions happening in the past, one was continuing while the other interrupted:
     -   Tono and his wife were working the rice field when the flood suddenly came yesterday.

The present perfect tense

The present perfect tense is normally used in two situations as the following:
1.  For a completed action or state at an indefinite time in the past.  The time markers usually used are: just, already, yet, not yet, etc.
2.  For an action or state that has continued for a period of time, from the point in the past until the present time (past-to-present).  The time markers used are: since, for, so far, up to now, in all (time), until now, etc.
The formula of present perfect tense: Subject + have/has + verb (type III).
Examples:
1.  Ani has taken the Agricultural Extension course for nearly one semester.
2.  Mr. Madjid has already sold his farm products in the local market with a good price.
3.  I have learned the breeding of tropical vegetables through genetic engineering since many years.
4.  Anton and Susan have demonstrated the techniques of plant propagation by vegetative methods.
5.  Some horticultural products have been rotten during transportation from field to market due to high temperature.

The past perfect tense

The past perfect tense is used to show an action that was completed before a particular event that also took place in the past.  In a sentence, the past perfect tense is generally combined with a past tense, since both refer to events in the past.  The time markers usually used in this combination are:  before, after or when.
The formula of past perfect tense: Subject + had + verb (type III).
Examples:
1.  Jono had sold his buffaloes before he bought a hand-tractor for cultivating the rice field.
2.  Farmers in our village had cleared the weeds, bush and other materials before they cultivated the land using a hand-tractor.
3.  They sprayed the pesticide after the aphids had attacked their tomato crops.
4.  My uncle grew soybean after he had harvested the cabbages.
5.  The birds had left when the farmer put up the scarecrow.

Sentence transformation for present and past continuous tenses

To transform sentences in the form of present and past continuous tenses into a negative, simply put the word not after the verb to be; and to transform the sentences into an interrogative, you should place the verb to be in the front of the statement (at the beginning of the sentence before the subject) or use the question words.
Examples:
1. The virus diseases are attacking citrus farm in Kumpeh Ulu, Jambi.
     -   The virus diseases are not attacking citrus farm in Kumpeh Ulu, Jambi.
     -   Are the virus attacking citrus farm in Kumpeh Ulu, Jambi?
     -   What are attacking citrus farm in Kumpeh Ulu, Jambi?
2. Farmers in Kayu Aro are growing potatoes and carrots.
     -   Farmers in Kayu Aro are not growing potatoes and carrots.
     -   Are farmers in Kayu Aro growing potatoes and carrots?
     -   Who are growing potatoes and carrots?
3. The extension officer is presenting the methods of making compost.
     -   The extension officer is not presenting the methods of making compost.
     -   Is the extension officer presenting the methods of making compost?
     -   What is the extension officer presenting?
4. Tono was spraying the rice field with insecticides
     -   Tono was not spraying the rice field with insecticides.
     -   Was Tono spraying the rice field with insecticides?
     -   What was Tono spraying the rice field?
5. Tono was spraying the rice field while his wife was clearing the weeds.
     -   Tono was not spraying the rice field while his wife was clearing the weeds.
     -   Was Tono spraying the rice field while his wife was clearing the weeds?
     -   Who was spraying the rice field while his wife was clearing the weeds?
6. Tono and his wife were working the rice field when the flood suddenly came yesterday.
-          Tono and his wife were not working the rice field when the flood suddenly came yesterday.
-          Where Tono and his wife were working when the flood suddenly came yesterday?


Sentence transformation for present and past perfect tenses

To transform sentences in the form of present and past perfect tenses into a negative, simply put the word not after the helping verbs (have, has, had) + verb (type III) or use the words did not + verb (type I); and to transform the sentences into an interrogative, you should place the helping verbs before the subject (and use the verb type III) or use the word did before the subject (and use the verb type I) at the beginning of the sentence; or use the question words.
Examples:
1. Mr. Madjid has already sold his farm products in the local market.
     -   Mr. Madjid has not already sold his farm products in the local market.
     -   Has Mr. Madjid already sold his farm products in the local market?
     -   Where has Mr. Madjid already sold his farm products?
2. I have learned the breeding of tropical vegetables through genetic engineering since many years.
     -   I have not learned the breeding of tropical vegetables through genetic engineering.
     -   Have I learned the breeding of tropical vegetables through genetic engineering since many years?
     -   What have I learned since many years?
3. Some horticultural products have been rotten during transportation from field to market due to high temperature.
     -   Some horticultural products have not been rotten during transportation from field to market due to high temperature.
     -   Have some horticultural products been rotten during transportation from field to market due to high temperature?
     -   What have been rotten during transportation from field to market due to high temperature?
4. Jono had sold his buffaloes before he bought a hand-tractor for cultivating the rice field.
     -   Jono had not sold his buffaloes before he bought a hand-tractor for cultivating the rice field.
     -   Had Jono sold his buffaloes before he bought a hand-tractor for cultivating the rice field?
     -   What had Jono sold before he bought a hand-tractor for cultivating the rice field?
5. They sprayed the pesticide after the aphids had attacked their tomato crops.
     -   They did not spray the pesticide after the aphids had attacked their tomato crops.
     -   Did they spray the pesticide after the aphids had attacked their tomato crops?
     -   What did they spray after the aphids had attacked their tomato crops?
6. The birds had left when the farmer put up the scarecrow.
     -   The birds had not left when the farmer put up the scarecrow.
     -   Had the birds left when the farmer put up the scarecrow?
     -   What had left when the farmer put up the scarecrow?

Students’ activity

Assignment 1

Please have a look at the following passage, then fill in the blanks with appropriate words (based on the word in the bracket).

Modern Australian Farmers
My family and I ……….. (fly) from Jakarta to Sidney on Qantas Airlines last year, and we ……….. (watch) a movie on the aircraft during the travel.  This movie shows us the lives of farmers in a small town in Western Australia.  There ……….. (to be) a man ……….. (stand) on nearby a shade.  He ……….. (wear) a blue shirt and a striping jumper.  The man ……….. (watch) his workers work in his farm by using modern equipments, such as tractors, drying machine, silos.  Some people ……….. (harvest) wheat crops using harvesting tractors, while some others ……….. (unload) the harvested wheat from tractors and ……….. (take) them to the silos for storage.  While their parents ……….. (work) on the field, the children ……….. (play) hide-and-seek in the hay.  They ……….. (run) here and there happily.  I think they ……….. (to be) really ……….. (enjoy) their lives as farmers.

A Buffalo Attack
I ……….. (watch) a TV program when I ……….. (hear) someone ……….. (call) my name.  It ……….. (to be) my friend, Jono.  He ……….. (wear) a red shirt with black trousers, and a cap ……….. (put) on his head.  I ……….. (think) he ……….. (to be) about to go to his farm and asked me to accompany him.   But suddenly, when he ……….. (walk) toward my house, a big black buffalo ……….. (run) after him.  Jono ……….. (to be) very upset and he ……….. (shout) for help while ……….. (keep) on running for his life.  Fortunately, the buffalo ……….. (stop) chasing him and run away.  Jono ……….. (to be) not hurt but he ……….. (to be) very shocked.  My mother ……….. (give) him a glass of plain water.  Then Jono and I ……….. (spend) the whole day by watching TV while my mother ……….. (preparing) meals.

Assignment 2

Try to construct 5 (five) sentences of each present continuous, past continuous, present perfect and past perfect tenses, then transform the sentences into negative and interrogative forms.


Vocabulary list

Aphids                                   =    sejenis serangga kutu
Baby corn                              =    jagung semi (jagung sayur)
Bush                                      =    semak belukar
Cabbage                                =    kubis
Carrots                                   =    wortel
Citrus                                     =    jeruk
Clearing                                 =    membersihkan (rumput, belukar)
Compost                                =    pupuk kompos
Cultivating                             =    membudidayakan
Genetic engineering           =    rekayasa genetika
Hand-tractor                          =    traktor tangan
Hay                                         =    jerami
Intercropping                        =    tumpang sari
Plant propagation                =    perbanyakan tanaman
Potatos                                   =    kentang
Scarecrow                             =    orang-orangan di sawah untuk mengusir burung
Silos                                       =    silo (tempat menyimpan hasil panen biji-bijian)
Vegetables                            =    sayuran
Virus                                       =    virus
Weeds                                    =    gulma (tumbuhan pengganggu)
Wheat                                    =    gandum

penulis :
Prof.Dr.H.Zulkarnain

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