ADJECTIVES AND ADVERBS
Specific instructional aims
Students are able to understand and describe the function of adjective and adverb correctly.
· adjectives (adjective of quality, adjective of quantity, possessive adjective, article adjective, verbal adjective)
· adverb (adverb qualifying verbs, adverb qualifying adjectives, adverb qualifying other adverbs)
An adjective (from Latin adiicere, add to) is a class of words that is used to modify or explain a noun or pronoun. In general, an adjective comes before the noun or pronoun it modifies, but sometimes it occurs after the noun or pronoun (following a verb to be). There are several types of adjective, i.e. adjective of quality, adjective of quantity, possessive adjective, article adjective, and verbal adjective.
Adjective of quality
Adjective of quality is an adjective that is used to describe the quality of a noun or pronoun.
1. Hot chilli pepper is more expensive than sweet chilli pepper during the past three years.
2. Farmers in Kayu Aro are growing new potato variety.
3. The big bunch of banana is produced by plants growing on fertile soil.
4. Many of tropical crops originated from South Asia and Central Asia.
5. Cacti grow abundantly in arid soils of a desert.
Adjective of quantity
Adjective of quality is an adjective that is used to describe the quantity of a noun or pronoun. These are: many, much, some, a few, several, various, a number of, a little, one, two, three, a hundred, one thousand, etc.
1. There are five mangosteen in the basket.
2. Some farmers are discussing the irrigation system in the village.
3. Most of Indonesian farmers are poor and uneducated.
4. Many of tropical crops originated from South Asia and Central Asia.
5. Agricultural students will take a field trip to Bangko in a few days.
Possessive adjective is an adjective that shows a possession of something by someone or by other thing. These include: my, our, your, his, her, their, its, my uncle’s, Rudi’s, etc.
1. Our farms are located around the village.
2. We want to see her tobacco crops attacked by TMV virus.
3. Budi’s father is driving his new tractor.
4. Your garden looks very beautiful.
5. They are using the planting equipments of their own.
Article adjective is an adjective indicating the article of something. There include: a, an, the, this, these, that and those.
1. The technical irrigation system increases rice production by three times.
2. I don’t want to eat those mangoes because they are too sour.
3. Do you want to bring these strawberries home?
4. Jono is going to rent a hand tractor.
5. My father is an agricultural extension officer.
Verbal adjective is an adjective derived from a verb. There are two types of verbal adjective: 1) in the form of present participle (-ing form), and 2) in the form of past participle (-ed form).
1. The drying method of wet paddy using solar energy is much cheaper than using machine.
2. Farmers in Australia use harvesting machine to pick up their mango fruits.
3. On an irrigated field we may have three times rice planting a year.
4. An effective way of preventing plant pest and disease is by applying blended chemicals.
5. An improved rice variety will allow farmers to obtain better production.
Adverb (Latin: adverbium) has several functions, i.e. it explains verbs, explains adjectives, and explains other adverbs or the entire grammatical constructions. In general, an adverb is formed by adding “ly” to an adjective, such as simultaneous Þ simultaneously, active Þ actively, and high Þ highly. However, there are some words ended with “ly” but functioning as adjectives, such as early, neighborly, ad wifely. On the other hand, words such as: very, much, many, little, few, so, too, often, always, seldom, and there, which are not ended with “ly” are adverbs. There are also some words that can function as an adjective in one time, and also function as an adverb in other time, such as: long, fast, good, etc. Observe the following examples.
Adverbs qualifying verbs
1. The potatoes in the two plots are fertilized simultaneously.
(“simultaneously” is an adverb qualifying the verb “fertilized”).
2. Virus disease seriously damage hot peppers grown in Pal Merah.
(“seriously” is an adverb qualifying the verb “damage”).
3. Jono is spraying the pesticide carefully.
(“carefully” is an adverb qualifying the verb “spraying”.
4. The golden snail can be easily eradicated by using appropriate chemicals.
(“easily” is an adverb qualifying the verb “eradicated”).
5. The use of foliar fertilizer significantly increase crop production.
(“significantly” is an adverb qualifying the verb “increase”).
Adverbs qualifying adjective
1. The petals of Dendrobium are easily bruised due to hot temperature.
(“easily” is an adverb qualifying the adjective “bruised”).
2. The effect of plant growth regulators is highly significant on the growth of single-node cutting of pepper.
(“highly” is an adverb qualifying the adjective “significant”).
3. The production of Crude Palm Oil in Jambi is extremely low during the past two years.
(“extremely” is an adverb qualifying the adjective “low’).
4. Growing vegetables is as equally important as growing food crops.
(“equally” is an adverb qualifying the adjective “important”).
5. The price of imported seeds is very expensive.
(“very” is an adverb qualifying the adjective “expensive”).
Adverbs qualifying other adverb
1. Joko explains the method of vegetative plant propagation extremely well.
(“extremely” is an adverb qualifying the adverb “well”).
2. Citrus crops are very often attacked by virus diseases.
(“very” is an adverb qualifying the adverb “often”).
3. So many people are interested in growing medicinal crops for their own use.
(“so” is an adverb qualifying the adverb “many”).
4. You will get stomach ache if you drink too much coconut water.
(“too” is an adverb qualifying the adverb “much”).
5. There are quite few farmers in our village planting new rice variety.
(“quite” is an adverb qualifying the adverb “few”).
Words ended with “ly” but function as adjectives
1. Farmers are early grower.
(“early” is an adjective qualifying the noun “grower”).
2. Women should not neglect their wifely duties.
(“wifely” is an adjective qualifying the noun “duties”).
3. We went to a lovely garden near the town hall.
(“lovely” is an adjective qualifying the noun “garden”).
4. They put the potato tubers in orderly packages.
(“orderly” is an adjective qualifying the noun “packages”).
5. Mr. Hasan is a fatherly teacher in our school.
(“fatherly” is an adjective qualifying the noun “teacher”).
Words that can function as adjectives or adverbs
1. We have a long trip to oil palm plantation in Sibolga.
(“long” is an adjective qualifying the noun “trip”).
2. Father wants me to stay in the farm as long as I can.
(“long” is an adverb qualifying the modal verb “can”).
3. Good crop maintenance will result in high production.
(“good” is an adjective qualifying the noun “crop maintenance”).
4. I can’t do seed sowing as good as you do.
(“good” is an adverb qualifying the verb “can’t do”).
5. Aisah is a fast fruit picker.
(“fast” is an adjective qualifying the noun “fruit picker”).
6. Aisah picked up the tomatoes very fast.
(“fast” is an adverb qualifying the verb “pick up”).
The following passage contains adjectives and adverbs you have just learned. Read the text carefully, and identify the adjectives and adverbs used in the passage.
The Swainsona formosa plant
Swainsona formosa is one of Australia’s native plants, and is one of the world’s most spectacular flowering plants. The outstanding feature of S. formosa is its brilliant-colored flowers, from white or pink through to dark red standard and keel with or without a distinctive boss.
The great potential of S. formosa is as a container-grown ornamental, either in a flowering pot or hanging basket, or as a cut flower. With ideal growing conditions and intensive plant care, S. formosa can also be spectacular used as a garden ornamental. The commercialization of S. formosa for the cut flower market is quite flexible. It can be marketed either as individual, single-stemmed flower clusters or as multiple clusters on a leafy branch. Asian markets, particularly Tokyo and Osaka in Japan, are a potential destination for trade in S. formosa.
However, the commercialization of S. formosa as a cut flower is subject to a number of limitations. In addition to color variations, stem length and the number of blooms per cluster, another impediment to commercialization of S. formosa as a cut flower is the production of large amounts of pollen in the flowers. This brings about a reduction in flower quality due to petal staining by the pollen grains that are shed during transportation. In addition, during transportation pollination may occur, resulting in the rapid degeneration of pollinated flowers and thus reduction in the vase-life of the flowers. Flowers of S. formosa start to senesce on the plant within 2 - 3 days after effective pollination. Unpollinated flowers, on the other hand, will remain fresh on the plant for 5 – 10 days. This indicates that avoiding pollination will increase the vase-life of harvested flowers.
Research on the breeding of S. formosa has been conducted with the emphasis on the production of male-sterile flowers. Two strategies have been used, an in vitro technique aimed at producing haploid plants and an in vivo technique aimed at producing triploid plants. Both haploid and triploid plants are sterile because where there is an odd number of chromosome sets reproductive fertility is usually impaired. This is because during meiosis the normal pairing of chromosomes cannot properly take place since one set of chromosomes has no homologous set with which to pair, and so gametes fail to form.
This review begins with the discussion on the significance of male-sterility, particularly in ornamental plants. A number of factors affecting male-sterility in plants are then reviewed. The potential of ploidy modification for crop improvement is described and the methods used in modifying ploidy level, including haploidysation via anther culture and chromosomes doubling by the use of chemicals, are discussed. Plant embryology as a fundamental aspect in plant breeding is also reviewed and discussed with particular emphasis in legumes.
(Source: Zulkarnain. 2003. Breeding Strategies in Sturt’s Desert Pea (Swainsona formosa (G.Don) J.Thompson) Using In Vitro and In Vivo Techniques. PhD Thesis. The University of New England, Armidale, Australia).
arid = keadaan kering (seperti di gurun)
bruised = memar
bunch = ikatan (bunga, sayur, dll).
cacti = kaktus
chilli pepper = cabe (lombok)
coconut water = air kelapa
crop maintenance = pemeliharaan tanaman
cutting = penyetekan (dari kata setek)
Dendrobium = anggrek genus Dendrobium
Dendrobium Golden Shower = jenis anggrek Dendrobium hibrid
eradicate = eradikasi (pemusnahan)
fruit picker = pemetik buah
mangoes = mangga
mangosteen = manggis
medicinal crops = tanaman obat-obatan
petals = daun mahkota bunga
plant growth regulator = zat pengatur tumbuh
plots = petak percobaan
potato tubers = umbi kentang
seed sowing = penaburan benih
single-node = nodus tunggal (satu nodus/satu huku)
strawberries = tanaman stroberi
TMV virus = virus TMV (Tomato Mosaic Virus)
vegetatif plant propagation = perbanyakan tanaman secara vegetatif